Showing posts with label Guest-Posts. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Guest-Posts. Show all posts

Times just keeps slipping away. So why don’t we make every moment count. Why don’t we use every second to build up a memory. So that if we find some time to think back we will find a Pandora’s Box full of precious memories. You might wonder that we will feel sad that we won’t be able to live this moment now. But if we keep using this theory of building up memories we will hardly have time to think back. Now you will start wondering something else. That’s why build up so many memories when we aren’t going to use it any time. Yeah I know that we won’t be using it but it will be used by everyone else who knew us and will keep admiring us. These admirations will build up another store of good wishes. Then these good wishes will build up a store of opportunities. Then these opportunities will again build up a store of success. This success is nothing but the best memories. So after all we are on the same path of building memories but some better ones or the best ones. These are amazing treasures. I know memories make you cry but they even make you laugh, make you enjoy yourself. There are some who fear memories, but these are just a film we released a long time ago. 
A film which many enjoyed, including you yourself. What more do you want? Happiness is all we need. Happiness is what we remember. We remember our memories. This means that our memories are Happiness. So you see that everything, every feeling is interrelated with one another. One takes you to another. Now you keep wondering. Do you need a memory or not. They are awesome. They take you to a totally different space. If you like my idea of building up memories, then don’t waste your time and rush to build up some memories you yourself! Time is slipping by. You just lost 5 precious seconds!!!!!!! But if you are fine without memories put an end to your reading. Just walk back to your daily life. I love memories so am rushing to make some. You don’t need to be an architect or builder or engineer to build some. All you need is time, a heart and a will. Happy memoring !!!
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The ambitious project of Unique Identity Number and National 
Population Register are going to make a difference in coming. The need 
of the hour is not to fight over the issue of duplicacy of efforts and 
wastage of money but to find ways of integrating the data into a 
unique ID which will help in ensuring better and efficient service 
delivery in the country. I think the youth should be made the main 
target group for registering into UID and then the rest. In all the 
education institutions, Aadhaar Number should be made compulsory and 
all the government agencies issuing some kind of identity must include 
Aadhaar No in their ID like Driving Licence, Pan Card, Passport, 
College Identity, Ration Card etc. and thus it will revolutionize the 
whole process of UID. And along with this the UIDAI should try to make 
the Unique ID more foolproof and authentication drive should be 
initiated like mobile number verification after an interval of say 
5year the first one should be within 3 month of issue of card. I think 
these measures will make Aadhaar Number a success story and other 
countries will follow suit. 
Shashikant Nishant Sharma  


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The ambitious project of Unique Identity Number and National 
Population Register are going to make a difference in coming. The need 
of the hour is not to fight over the issue of duplicacy of efforts and 
wastage of money but to find ways of integrating the data into a 
unique ID which will help in ensuring better and efficient service 
delivery in the country. I think the youth should be made the main 
target group for registering into UID and then the rest. In all the 
education institutions, Aadhaar Number should be made compulsory and 
all the government agencies issuing some kind of identity must include 
Aadhaar No in their ID like Driving Licence, Pan Card, Passport, 
College Identity, Ration Card etc. and thus it will revolutionize the 
whole process of UID. And along with this the UIDAI should try to make 
the Unique ID more foolproof and authentication drive should be 
initiated like mobile number verification after an interval of say 
5year the first one should be within 3 month of issue of card. I think 
these measures will make Aadhaar Number a success story and other 
countries will follow suit. 
Shashikant Nishant Sharma  


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The proposed change in the laws on Persons with Disabilities (Equal  Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995  is a commendable attempt to counter ill-rooted discrimination based on  a person's disability through legal guarantees of equality of  opportunity. This is in compliance with the letter and spirit of the  2007 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with  Disabilities. The Government proposes to increase the reservation from  existing three percent to five percent in the government sector and  incentives for the firms employing such persons with disabilities up  to five percent.  The remarkable provision of penalizing the non-complying firms with  increased tax-dis-incentive. The legislation will work wonders if the  compulsory filling of such posts to be filled in the current year with  relaxed provisions will help achieve the goal of social justice in  true sense of term.  The identification and addition of more suitable jobs for persons with  disabilities will go a long way in bringing these people in the main  stream of the workforce.  There should be increased awareness among the people for ensuring  proper and adequate undiscriminating education. The educational  environment should be improved so that such persons get requisite  encouragement of continuing further and higher studies.  True social equity and justice won't be ensured unless this section of  the society is not brought into the mainstream of the society.  India can set an example for the developing countries and translate  the provisions of the convention on rights of the persons with  disabilities held under the ambit of UN. Let the provide an environment of equality for all at our work places. 
By Shashikant Nishant Sharma   
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Here we will discuss the impact of land-use on transport. Given the overall population size and demographic characteristics, the total volume of passenger transport and the split between transport modes depends on the locations of human activities, the needs and desires of people and the transport resistances (generalized transport costs).Partly because of growing car ownership levels and car use, most Western countries expanded the motorway network, resulting in shorter travel times, a higher level of car usage and dispersed land-use patterns. This trend has also started in Indian metropolitan cities development like Delhi. Most research and policy documents on the impact of land use on travel behaviour use as indicators kilometers traveled by different modes, often by motive; and number of trips. For instance, a person may first bring a child to school, then go to work and do shopping after work, before turning other hand; such complex trips induce people to use individual transport, which is in many cases the car.
The increasing car use level can be seen as an intermediate target, having a major impact on congestion and environmental indicators. Land use may not only influence the indicators as mentioned before (such as the overall level of car use), but also the spatial patterns of travel and so congestion levels, environmental and safety impacts. 
Most research and policy documents pay attention to changes in land use, e.g. the conversion of agricultural land to urban land use. People in rural areas along the coast of Odiasa, outside the existing urban area, on average travel 10 km per day. Differences in car use are even bigger: car use of people living in urban locations within the existing urban area is about one third lower than of people living in the rural locations outside the existing urban area.
Only few authors writing on the urban planning and urban affairs have addressed the impact of life styles, attitudes or preferences for modes on travel behaviour, the link with residential location and land use, and self-selection. The condition existing in India is quite different from those of the western world. People inIndia attach social and economic status with the mode of transport. Like people traveling in cars are supposed to be of high status than those preferring other modes of transport for local journeys. Sometimes there are some transportation problems like at the home end (in addition to local public transport) the car and bicycle are available for the trip to the station whereas at the workplace end only public transport and walking are available. 
Land uses have a relatively strong impact on transport. For example, the differences in car use can be as high as twenty percent or even more of the travel to, from and within the areas which locations were varied geographically. The introduction and successful execution of metro train in Delhi and BRTS in Ahmedabad have proved that efficient public transport can reduce or substantially discourage the use of cars. The government and the policy planners should think of more innovative models of the urban development like compact cities and sustainable neighborhoods for solving the crisis of transport alternatives and reduction in travel time.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant
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Here we will discuss the impact of land-use on transport. Given the overall population size and demographic characteristics, the total volume of passenger transport and the split between transport modes depends on the locations of human activities, the needs and desires of people and the transport resistances (generalized transport costs).Partly because of growing car ownership levels and car use, most Western countries expanded the motorway network, resulting in shorter travel times, a higher level of car usage and dispersed land-use patterns. This trend has also started in Indian metropolitan cities development like Delhi. Most research and policy documents on the impact of land use on travel behaviour use as indicators kilometers traveled by different modes, often by motive; and number of trips. For instance, a person may first bring a child to school, then go to work and do shopping after work, before turning other hand; such complex trips induce people to use individual transport, which is in many cases the car.
The increasing car use level can be seen as an intermediate target, having a major impact on congestion and environmental indicators. Land use may not only influence the indicators as mentioned before (such as the overall level of car use), but also the spatial patterns of travel and so congestion levels, environmental and safety impacts. 
Most research and policy documents pay attention to changes in land use, e.g. the conversion of agricultural land to urban land use. People in rural areas along the coast of Odiasa, outside the existing urban area, on average travel 10 km per day. Differences in car use are even bigger: car use of people living in urban locations within the existing urban area is about one third lower than of people living in the rural locations outside the existing urban area.
Only few authors writing on the urban planning and urban affairs have addressed the impact of life styles, attitudes or preferences for modes on travel behaviour, the link with residential location and land use, and self-selection. The condition existing in India is quite different from those of the western world. People inIndia attach social and economic status with the mode of transport. Like people traveling in cars are supposed to be of high status than those preferring other modes of transport for local journeys. Sometimes there are some transportation problems like at the home end (in addition to local public transport) the car and bicycle are available for the trip to the station whereas at the workplace end only public transport and walking are available. 
Land uses have a relatively strong impact on transport. For example, the differences in car use can be as high as twenty percent or even more of the travel to, from and within the areas which locations were varied geographically. The introduction and successful execution of metro train in Delhi and BRTS in Ahmedabad have proved that efficient public transport can reduce or substantially discourage the use of cars. The government and the policy planners should think of more innovative models of the urban development like compact cities and sustainable neighborhoods for solving the crisis of transport alternatives and reduction in travel time.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
Urban Planner and Consultant
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Today, we will discuss some relationship among the urban design, landuse planning and the transport planning. The amount of the physical activity of the people of a locality depends or get modified by the existing urban design, landuse planning and the available means and modes of transportation. The well being and health of the residents are guided by these interdependent factors i.e., urban design, land use planning and the transportation. For example, environmental and planning approaches for increasing physical activity would include: walking and cycling, funding for public facilities, zoning and land use that facilitates activity in neighborhoods.
The healthy living pattern can be promoted throughcommunity-scale urban design and land use planning.Thoughtful street scale urban design and land use can promote increased physical activity. The availability of public transport at a reasonable distance say half kilometer can surely promote walking and use of public transport.  
Same components and parameters of design and planning cannot be applied to urban and rural areas. The design and planning interventions can help make the community living more healthy and beneficial for all age group of people.
Transportation/travel interventions would include interventions that strive to improve pedestrian, cycling and access to public transport at optimum distance.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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There is a genuine concern regarding the pattern of the main examination of the Civil Services. I has appeared for the exam and felt the same concern. But, there was no option. I have done well in the exam and hope to clear it. 
One thing I would like to mention that I enjoyed the essay paper as I had the requisite time to express my ideas as I wished not bounded by the limitation of the time. The number of the questions and the world limit prescription was not fair in this exam. I had completed the language papers in 2 hours and waited for 1 hour to leave the exam hall while I was not able to rest for a while while writing the answers to the questions of the other papers. No doubt the standard of the questions were up to mark but the time limit and the word limit were grossly mismatched for optimal output of the thinking and understanding. 
I would suggest the UPSC to include extempore and public speaking as a level of qualifying the exam like the interview. This measure will ensure the shortlisting of candidates for are better prepared for the civil services as most of the post they serve demand a good command in spontaneity and clarity of thoughts.

Shashikant Nishant Sharma
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Let's examines how in different ways that transportation decisions affect land use patterns and resulting economic, social and environmental impacts. These include direct impacts on land used for transportation facilities, and indirect impacts caused by changes to land use development patterns. In particular, certain transportation planning decisions tend to increase sprawl while others support smart growth.Land use patterns can have diverse economic, social and environmental impacts: some some require less imprervious surface per capita and so preserve more open space, and some are more accessible and so reduce transportation costs to businesses and consumers. Transportation planning decisions influence land use directly, by affecting the amount of land used for transport facilities, and indirectly, by affecting the location and design of development.
For example, expanding urban highways increases pavement area, and by increasing urban fringe vehicle access encourages more dispersed, automobile-oriented development, commonly called sprawl, while walking, cycling and public transit improvements encourage compact, infill development, commonly called smart growth.  For example, infill development tends to increase impervioius surface coverage within existing urban areas, but by reducing lower-density urban fringe development are reducing per captia road and parking supply, it tends to reduces per capita and total regional impervious surface area. Sprawl refers to dispersed development in low-density, single-use,automobile-dependent development areas outside of any city or town; population growth in cities and towns outside existing cities is not necessarily sprawl if the development pattern reflects smart growthprinciples. Transportation planning decisions affect land use, both directly by determining which land is devoted to transport facilities such as roads, parking lots, and ports, and indirectly by affecting the relative accessibility and development costs in different locations.
In general, policies that reduce the generalized cost (financial costs, travel time, discomfort, risk) ofautomobile travel tend to increase total traffic and sprawl, while those that improve non-motorized and transit travel tend to support smart growth. Planning decisions often involve trade offs between mobility and accessibility.By increasing the amount of land required for a given amount of development, generous road and parking requirements favor urban fringe development, where land prices are lower. It can be difficult to determine the exact land use impacts of a particular transport planning decision, particularly indirect, long-term impacts. Impacts are affected by factors such as the relative demand for different types of development, the degree to which a particular transportation project will improve accessibility and reduce costs, and how a transportation policy or project integrates with other factors. Conversely, if there is significant unmet demand for transit-oriented development, improving transit service and implementing supportive land use policies will probably stimulate smart growth.
Structured parking reduces land requirements and underground parking can be considered to use no additional land. In addition, motor vehicle traffic tends to reduce development density indirectly by increasing the need for sidewalk and building setbacks to avoid traffic noise and dust, so larger boulevards, highways shoulders and front lawns can be considered, in part, a land use cost of motor vehicle transport. It suggests that 5-10% of suburban land, 20-30% of urban land, and 40-60% of commercial center land is devoted to roads and parking. As previously described, automobile-oriented transport planning tends to cause sprawl by increasing the amount of land required for development, by improving accessibility to urban-fringe locations, and by degrading urban environments.. Another transport engineering text states: It can be argued that sprawl is a land use issue rather than a transport issue, since it can be controlled by land use policies such as development restrictions and zoning codes.
Few governments can establish and enforce effective land use controls where undeveloped land is easily accessible to urban areas. This reduces transportation costs, including internal costs and external costs. Smart growth improves non-drivers overall accessibility and reduces the portion of lower-income household budgets devoted to transportation. Because transit services and pedestrian facilities experience economies of scale, smart growth tends to increase service quality and reduce unit costs. Sprawl reduces unit land costsand so reduces costs for larger-lot homes, while smart growth reduces land requirements per housing unit, reduces parking requirements, and expands housing types, but may require structured parking and increase other building costs. Sprawl reduces housing costs for households that demand larger-lot single-family homes and generous parking supply, but smart growthreduces housing costs for households with more flexible housing and parking preferences.
 More compact development, including reductions in the amount of land required for transport facilities such as roads and parking, frees up land for other productive uses, including businesses, housing, farmlands, and recreation.
Of course, actual impacts depend on factors, including other land uses and the quality of land displaced. This indicates that transportation policies that encourage more compact development and reduce the amount of land required for roads and parking facilities can increase the productivity of farming or other land-intensive industries. The following land use factors can affect energy consumption and emissions: Although individually each of these factors has relatively modest travel impacts, residents of traditional communities that incorporate most or all of these factors tend to drive 20-40% less than otherwise comparable residents of automobile-dependent communities Transportation facilities and sprawl sometimes threaten unique cultural resources, such as historic buildings, sacred land areas, neighborhood parks, older neighborhoods and towns, and traditional building styles.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma


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Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, transportation cost savings, public health, reduced external transportation costs, more efficient land use, community livability, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking. 
From a conventional planning perspective, walking is a minor mode of travel, and walkability deserves only modest public support. The high value placed on driving and low value placed on walking results from the methods used to measure transport activity. Travel surveys and traffic counts undervalue nonmotorized travel because they ignore or undercount short trips, non-work travel, travel by children, recreational travel and nonmotorized links. We often underestimate the importance of walking in our transportation surveys and we rarely include them in one of the effective and sustainable mode of mobility.
There is often shifting of resources (money and land) away from walking facilities to roads and parking. We intuitively know that transport diversity in general, and walking in particular, are important to society and so favor walkability improvements. Although most travel  surveys indicate that only about 5-10 % of travel is by walking. This is a timely issue because there is growing interest in walking as a form of transport, and recognition of the benefits of Transportation diversity.
Walking is an important form of access, both by itself and in conjunction with other modes (transit, driving, air travel, etc.). But since driving is about ten times faster than walking, this person spends half as much time walking as driving on public facilities, and a modest improvement in walking access (for example, a pedestrian shortcut between their home and local shops) can provide travel time savings that are comparable to a major roadway improvement. Walking accessibility can be evaluated based on the quality of pedestrian conditions and the distribution of destinations, with special consideration to access from origin to destination.
The value of marginal changes in walking conditions can be quantified based on changes in travel time costs; based on costs compared with other access options such as driving; and by using contingent valuation surveys to determine the value people place on improved pedestrian accessibility. Although there are many ways to be physically active, walking is one of the most common, and improved walkability is a practical way to increase physical activity. The health benefits of increased walking and improved walkability are potentially quite large. Walking has a relatively high crash fatality rate per mile of travel, but this is offset by reduced risk to other road users and by the fact that pedestrians tend to travel less overall than motorists.
Walkability improvements can help improve land use efficiency and community livability by reducing the amount of land required for Transportation facilities, encouraging more clustered land use patterns, improving local environmental quality and increasing community interaction. Walkability improvements can also support regional economic development by shifting consumer expenditures. 
 For example, a particular sidewalk improvement may increase community livability(and therefore property values), improve accessibility, support equity objectives, provide consumer cost savings, benefit the local economy, improve aerobic fitness for some residents, reduce vehicle traffic impacts, and support more efficient land use.  Although only about 5% of trips are made completely by walking, three to six times as many urban trips involve at least one walking link, and 20-40% of travel time is spent walking or waiting.
By this measure, a major share of transport resources should be devoted to walking. However, local governments spend only about a quarter of total transport funds and other levels of government provide far less support for walking.  This discrepancy between the portion of travel by walking and the portion of resources devoted to walking becomes far larger when other public resources devoted to transport are included, such as expenditures on parking facilities and traffic services, and the opportunity cost of public lands devoted to roadways. Including these, less than 2% of total public resources devoted to transport are allocated to walking.
There are several reasons that walking might deserve more than a proportional share of transport resources: If we apply the principle that each mode should receive its proportional share of Transportation resources, this suggests that walking should receive 10-20% of total Transportation resources. These cross subsidies are two or three times greater when other external costs of automobile use are also considered, such as public resources devoted to parking facilities, uncompensated crash damages, and negative environmental impacts. More comprehensive benefit-cost analysis requires better techniques to measure and predict travel impacts of improved walkability, and to evaluate the full economic impacts that result, including indirect and nonmarket impacts that are not usually quantified in transport planning such as environmental, economic development and equity impacts. Conventional transport planning treats walking as a minor mode and recognize only modest benefits from improved walkability and increased walking.This reflects evaluation practices that undercount nonmotorized travel and undervalue walking benefits.
Other perspectives indicate that walking is a critical component of the transport system, and walking conditions have major economic, social and environmental impacts. improved walkability and increased walking can provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, transport cost savings, improved public health, external cost reductions, more efficient land use, community livability, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Conventional planning practices suggest that the current share of public resources devoted to walking is fair and efficient, but this reflects undercounting of total walking activity, undervaluation of walking benefits, and undervaluation of motor vehicle external costs. More comprehensive evaluation indicates that walking deserves a greater share of transport resources. Recognizing a higher value to walking and walkability could have various effects on Transportation and land use planning, future planners can give due weightage to pedestrian facilities while planning.

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Seven out of ten Indian citizens now live in cities or large towns, and the vast majority must deal with the consequences of poor urban planning every day of their lives. Negative aspects of urban living include traffic congestion, noise, poor public transport, urban sprawl, air pollution, a lack of easily accessible shops and services, and a host of other daily inconveniences. In the past, many local and regional decision-makers adopted a 'trial and error' approach to urban development, in which long-term objectives were rarely defined and remedial action was taken only when it became absolutely essential. But dysfunctional cities generate social and environmental problems which, in turn, have a real economic cost. Today, more and more regional and urban decision-makers are recognising the urgent need to put in place coordinated transport, land use and environmental policies.
Secondly, some planning authorities and municipalities are trying to develop quality infrastructure to improve the quality of life in India's cities, protect the environment. Transport planning strategies that placed too much emphasis on car use and did not take anintegrated approach to the complex needs of a modern city have failed spectacularly. Many of India's cities are reaching crisis point. Choked roads, overburdened public transport systems, pollution, noise and poorly serviced neighbourhoods are making life increasingly unbearable for more and more Indian citizens. One of the keys to successful urban development is forward planning.
   Cities should have short-, medium- and long-term transport and land use strategies ranging from thoughtful planning decisions to widest possible stakeholder consultation to draw up long-term sustainable development domains of Socio-economic development of Indian cities and towns. How the balance between the need and the demand of the improved infrastructure varying  city to city can be met is a serious problime. What matters is to identify transport and land use questions lie at the heart of any serious sustainable urban planning policy, and must be considered together. When a city gives the green light for a construction project - whether it is a housing complex, an apartment building, an office block or a shopping centre - it must also consider how people can get to or from the new premises. If it decides to build a ring road, on the other hand, developers will be keen to benefit from the improved access offered by the new transport link, as demonstrated by the industrial and commercial zones that now ring most major Indian cities. When land use and transport policy decisions are taken they are not done in due consideration of the roads and out-of-town shopping centres. The multi-dimensional handicap imposed on inner city areas increases with a mix of shops, recreational uses, residential neighbourhoods.
Every municipality must have expert from the fields of  environment, socialogogy and economics, urban planning, transport planning.  Very often the resources of the municipality is not fully utilized on city planning and management, cultural heritage, the built environment and urban transport. These areas need urgent attention to tackle some of the most pressing problems facing Indian cities today. 
Serious long-term transport and land use planning strategies need to look around 20 years into the future, so research into these important areas will be needed for some time to come. To support urban planning and economic policies, and their implementation by city remain a key are for research.
Shashikant Nishant Sharma

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