HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN INDIA


HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN INDIA
Meenu Jangra
H.No. 212 , V&PO Harewali , Delhi
ABSTRACT:
In businesses and other fields human resource is an important source to gain benefits over the competitors and it is also the one on the basis of which an organization progress over the years. Human resource main contribution is to maintain and keep the pace through the use of development competencies that are specific to the firm in which they give their services. These resources need some polishing from time to time so that they can match up with the changed scenario. The changes that take place in the market make it mandatory for Indian Industry to look after for the development of their human resources. The objective of my research study is to define the need of human resources and also the opportunities and challenges faced by industries for the development so that they can give their contribution in the progress of the nation.
Keywords: Human resources, Organizational performance, Opportunities, Development, Environment
INTRODUCTION:
Economic environment changes continuously and this happen due to many factors like changes in the needs and desires of consumers, innovations in technology, globalization and ever increasing competition. This arise a need for every organization to cope up with these changes through many activities like reducing the cost, increasing the productivity, improving the quality of the products and to improve their performance so that they became able to compete the environment successfully. The people who make the organization – human resources are considered most appropriate for today’s firms. Human resource development is a subpart of human resource management. HRD refers to the vast field of training and development provided by organizations to increase the abilities, skills and capacities of their employees through providing them knowledge about it. Eventually in many organizations, this process of HRD starts upon the hiring of a new employee and continues throughout that employee’s tenure with the entity. We know that many employees come into an industry with only a basic level of skills and experience and definitely receive training in order to do their jobs efficiently. The development process is basically designed to give employees the information they need to adapt the culture that prevails in that organization and to do their jobs effectively. The purpose of HR development is to provide the guidance to strengthen and grow the abilities and skills that an employee already has. Another form of development is intellectual or professional development through certification courses.  HRD aims to develop an employee in accordance with his own potentialities and capabilities on one hand and organization’s requirements on the other hand. So every organization needs to start programs to sharpen the potentialities of the people to perform their works efficiently and to improve the organizational performance. It helps in the all round development of the employees. The importance of human resource development is that in any economic activity human is the element that commands organize and maximize the factors of production. In short, the process of HRD opens the scope of modernization.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
There are many studies carried out in India for human resource development which reveals its importance in organization and for an Indian economy. Toracco (2002) contends “a study of learning reveals that all types of education, training of work related and academic, are largely the products of social and economic conditions.” Schwendiman (1987) stated that entities that create the most energetic environment personal growth and development will attract the most talented people in the organization.” Sredl and Rothwell (1992) stated that HRD professionals need to understand the point of view of their elder and older workers and the challenges they face in learning and development of opportunities for their training and development. Bakshi, Mathur et al (2014) recommends that human resources are a source of competitive advantage and positive statistical relationship between the HRD practices and business performance could better influence the organizational performance. Nagdev states that HRD principles reveal the intention of having a complicated system of motivation, compensation and development. This makes every single employee of the organization extremely unique and valuable.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
1.)    To study the different dimensions of human resource development.
2.)    To define the utility of HRD in increasing the organizational performance.
3.)    To study the opportunities available in human resource development.
4.)    To understand the challenges faced by professionals in the implementation of human resource development.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
This research paper is developed from descriptive secondary information available about Human Resource Development and Human Resource Management, published in different journals and newspapers. Available magazines and different websites are also used that provides information on this topic.
Dimensions of human resource development:
The concept of Human Resource development is a wider term which includes many dimensions according to the changed circumstances and environment of the economy of the country. T.V. Rao and Udai Pareek have suggested some dimensions of human resource management. These are as follows:

Performance appraisal

Career development and planning

Employee counseling
 



Dimensions   of human    resource          development

Potential appraisal

Training

Organizational development










1)      Performance appraisal :
With the use of Human Resource Development an organization can check from time to time the performance of its employees and motivate them to do better in near future so that organizational performance can be improved and if any deficiency occurs that can be removed within a short duration of time.
2)       Employee counseling:
To recognize the importance and benefits of changes and development employees needs to understand these terms very carefully. But this can happen only when an employee get proper knowledge about it. HRD helps in knowing the need of development to employees. So it also performs the function of a counselor.
3)      Career development and planning:
Career planning is very much essential in today’s environment. Without it an individual does not recognize its importance and try to fulfill them. HRD main scope is in the field of planning about career and provides the way to fulfill the dreams effectively. This is beneficial not only for the individual but for the whole organization.
4)      Training:
Training is also a part of employees’ development which is involved in the process of Human Resource Development. Training makes a person able in a specific field. After acquiring the training an employee become efficient in performing every task of the organization successfully. Training provides a specialized knowledge in a specific field.
5)      Organizational development:
Organization is made with the combination of human resources and material resources. Its success depends mainly on the efficiency of the employees working in that organization. HRD makes it easy to improve the efficiency of the employees so that organization can develop.
6)      Potential appraisal:
Human Resource Development makes it easy to develop the potentialities of the employees so that it helps in knowing the adaptability of the human resource. Through it employee’s performance is appraised. Potential ability depends on acquirement of knowledge and skills. This can be possible only with the help of techniques used in the Human Resource Development.
Objectives of HRD:
The main objective of Human Resource Development is to make an organization with best of employees so that new talent comes first in the firm. There are some other objectives which provide basis to HRD. These are as follows:
1.)    Equal opportunities: Treat every employee at par irrespective of caste, creed and religion, can create a good environment in the organization that helps in maintaining coordination among all the employees and paves the way for the organization development. HRD ensures that equal opportunities be provided to all the employees in planning their career, promotion and maintaining the quality of work life.
2.)    Employability to get work: Employability means the ability and competency of a person to get employment anywhere. So HRD must ensure that skills of the employees be improved in order to motivate them how to perform work effectively.
3.)    Easy adaptability: There is a need of continuous training to develop professional skills among employees so that they become able to adapt the changes in the environment easily. HRD performs this function very efficiently. This can help the employees to adapt themselves to organizational change that takes place continuously.
4.)    All round development: To become successful in today’s environment it is necessary for every individual to match up with all the requirements that a firm needs. So HRD matches the organizational needs for human resources with the individual talent. It enables the employees to gain their best by adapting all round development.
Opportunities in Human Resource Development:
·         Organization Design Consultant: advises management about work system design and proper use of the Human Resources. Effective utilization is a must for the successful implementation of this strategy. This proves to be of great use to the organization. Outputs used in it are better work design and implementation strategies.
·         Program designer: assists HR management in the efficient designing of the system and its development that directly affects the organization performance. Its main function is to design an effective program for implementation of the HR system.
·         HR strategic advisor: talks to strategic decision makers on issues in HRD implementation that directly affects the organization strategies and its performance goals. Outputs include in it are strategic planning information, strategic education and training courses.
·         Instructional Designer: recognizes the needs of the learner, design the appropriate programs according to the understanding level of the learner and its effective implementation. Arrangement of needed material and other aids are also necessary. Outputs involved in it are learning aids, program objective and implementation strategic criteria.
·         Performance Evaluator: guide management from time to time on effective interventions designed to improve the performance of an individual as well as of the whole group. Outputs used in it are research designs, reports and performance measurable programs.
·         Facilitator: leads and facilitates in the learning experiences in a structured form and presents the suitable material to implement it effectively. Outputs involved in it are proper selection of instructional methods and techniques and HRD program.
·         E-Learning Advisor: suggests management on effective implementation of the e-learning programs and techniques. He also advises about the designing of proper systems for HR development. Outputs involved are implementation strategy and effective courses.
Challenges faced in HRD by professionals:
Human resource development is not an easy concept which can be used effectively without proper guidance. Complete knowledge about it is a must for its proper utilization and implementation. However some challenges have to be faced by professionals in successful implementation of it:
1.)    Technology or skills:
The technology used by professionals to develop and train their employees is now outdated. The new techniques are replacing the old one and the pace of change is very high. The professionals need to train themselves so that they can match up with the latest technology and use that to meet the requirements of the new generation and for that purpose they have to increase their knowledge and skills.
2.)    Environment:
Environment plays a significant role in every aspect of business. An employee can perform better only when he get an environment of peace and coordination. An open environment is needed for the effective performance of an enterprise. In an organizational environment there should be fearlessness and open communication. This is the duty of HRD professionals to create an environment like this so that employees be motivated to perform better.
3.)    Life styles or habits:
The habits and life style of an employee is also important for the HRD professionals so that they know about the way how to train them. They have to understand their nature and habits so that they can decide about what kind of training should be given to employees to change their behavior and habits.
4.)    Knowledge of new practices:
New practices come from time to time in the organization environment. So an HRD professional have to update with the new practices adopted by the enterprise across the globe. New practices like dignity of individual, leadership quality, vendors and customers at large area.
5.)    Culture:
Today is the globalization time period and different countries have different cultures and values. HRD professionals have to face the cultural challenges to cope up with the requirements of the country in the changed scenario. Employees from different countries need to be trained in the language in which they are comfortable. This is the duty of HRD professionals to acquire the knowledge about culture and attitude of different countries.
6.)    Behavior values:
HRD professional needs to adjust themselves according to change the value. Leadership principle is becoming the main trend in the corporate world. Values are general believes based on judgment about the positive and negative behavior of the employs. Values are less in numbers but are very important. So it is the job of the HRD professionals to cope up with the values like trust credibility timeliness and the simpler rules are becoming the corners stone of many businesses.

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS:
It is clearly understood from the research study that human resources are one of the important element to gain competitive advantage. HRD creates employees with a sufficient qualification to satisfy the company requirements and best works in three basic components of personnel development i.e. human skills, professional skills and motivation. It is not an ending process but a continuous process and provides better quality of life. Such kind of development makes every employee an integral part of the organization. HRD is a conscious and proactive approach applied by employers to capacitate employees through training and development to give their maximum to the organization and to develop them. The growth of interest to the HRD is conditioned by the need of various organizations and the government to establish a strong economy in the country and increase its business competitiveness in terms of economic globalization, where HRD is just the best choice to make. To make it successful many programs should be conducted on regular intervals to arouse the interest and awareness among individuals about the benefits of development and to train them accordingly. This paves the way for a better future for the employees and of the organization in which they works. At last, Human Resource development is not only beneficial for a particular organization but also for the economic development of the nation.
REFERENCES:
·         Bakshi, Bhagat et al (2014), HRM Practices And Its Impact On Organizational Performance, Abhinav National Monthly Refereed Journal of Research in  Commerce & Management, Volume 3, Issue 5 (May, 2014), ISSN-2277-1166, www.abhinavjournal.com.
·         Anil kumar (2009), A Study Of HRM Practices And Organizational Culture In Selected Private Sector Organizations In India, Tenth International Conference on the topic of “UN Millennium Development Goals:  Challenges and Perspectives” held in Gödöllő, Hungary, ISSN 0572-3043.
·         Nagdev, Opportunities and Challenges In Human Resource Development (HRD), Tactful Management Research Journal, ISSN: 2319-7943, Impact Factor: 2.1632(UIF).
·         W. Gilley and M. Gilley, Major Issues In Human Resource Development, Human Resource Management – Vol. 1 – Major issues in Human Resource Development.
·         Bal & Bozcurt et al (2014), Determining The Influence Of HRM Practices On Increasing Organizational Commitment, International Conference on Management, Knowledge and learning.
·         Frederick Harbison and Charles A. Myers Education, Manpower and Economic Growth: Strategies of Human Resources Development (McGraw-Hill, USA, 1964) p.2.
·         Tariq khan,  Mahmood(2012), An Organizational Concept of Human Resource Development – How Human Resource Management Scholars View ‘HRD’, Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences, Vol. 2, No.5;
·         Jeet and Sayeeduzafar(2014), A Study Of HRM Practices And its impact on the employees job satisfaction in private sector banks, An International Journal Of Advance Research In Computer Science And Management Studies, ISSN: 232 7782, Volume 2, Issue 1,  www.ijarcsms.com.










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